The Cambridge Development Initiative (CDI) is a non-profit organization that improves the wellbeing of Tanzanians. CDI empowers student leaders in the UK and Tanzania to catalyse change in their societies through innovative projects in the areas of healthcare, education, entrepreneurship, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH). Since 2013, CDI has mobilized over 100 student volunteers to launch sustainable, community-oriented solutions to Dar es Salaam’s most significant challenges.
This year, the WaSH Project is focusing on two project streams: the Last 100m project (L100M) and the school WaSH project (SWaSH). L100M is a new project stream for this year in collaboration with researchers from Lancaster University. This project aims to investigate the effect of faecal contamination on waterborne diseases and explore hard (technical) and soft (community-based) inventions to reduce risk of water contamination. The project will be based in the Vingunguti district, building upon the relationships and partnerships developed by previous WaSH teams. The aim for this summer is to produce a research proposal that future teams can use as a foundation for the implementation phase next summer.
This year, SWaSH is focusing on three areas, namely constructing handwashing facilities (which may extend to solid waste disposal facilities), organising handwashing workshops and providing soap to 4 primary schools in the Vingunguti district.
Current work is underway to conduct a needs assessment of the 4 schools, which would start this coming Monday. We have also reached out to SAWA Tanzania to partner with us for this project. To ensure the project remains sustainable and operations and maintenance is conducted effectively, we plan to set up SWaSH Clubs at the 4 schools. We are also collaborating with the Entrepreneurship and Health Projects to coordinate the soap provision/soap-making initiative.
In the weeks following the COVID-19 outbreak, a group of CDI volunteers, led by Health Project Director Gerard Kuenning, refocused efforts from their project teams toward work on helping address the pandemic outbreak in Tanzania.
Two primary focuses were introduced for this endeavor. First, the group focused on helping disseminate public health information through partner organizations within Tanzania, including ShuleDirect, JitambueTV, and private blogs. Packets of information addressing preventative measures for mitigating the spread of COVID-19, sanitation, and mental health were created and distributed to these partner groups, who published the materials on their websites.
Second, work was done in attempting to secure care package funding, with these packages to be distributed to at-risk individuals in Dar es Salaam most affected by quarantining and restrictions put in place in response to the pandemic.
Following the declaration by President John Magufuli on June 8th that Tanzania was ‘COVID free’, published information on COVID-19 by our partner organizations was taken down, in accordance with government regulation. Not wishing to endanger our partner groups, work on these projects was halted.
Gerard Kuenning and Ramsha Hiram have redirected the Health Project’s work towards long term project ideation. They describe the projects and partnerships they are preparing for future Health Project teams to implement.
The political constraints surrounding implementation of COVID-19 public health work in Tanzania necessitated a return to the Health Project team’s original project plans, but with important changes. Given the imperative to ideate, partner, and implement remotely without the flexibility of seeing our own projects through on-ground, we have geared our fundraising efforts towards supporting organisations making social development efforts in line with the Health Project’s objectives by connecting them to grant funding that they might otherwise be unable to access, while simultaneously fundraising for next year’s initiatives.
We are ideating on project plans for sexual and reproductive health, sexual harassment, and mental health to be implemented in the long-term in collaboration with KITE, while partnering with local organizations to disseminate information online across these subjects with a view to raising awareness through targeted, needs-based campaigns which are grounded in the specificities of local context.
Our design sprint phase, which concluded in the first week of August, has enabled us to chalk out a strategy to pursue over the remaining six-weeks of our project period building upon these guidelines in terms of our objectives and our approach towards achieving them. At the same time, the Health team will be supporting CDI in the changes to its organisational structure and recruitment processes that it seeks to introduce by the end of the 2019-2020 term.
New partnerships and pilot projects having been put on hold due to the COVID-19 pandemic, our Entrepreneurship Project Directors Izzy Green and Hannah Rogasch have worked brilliantly on laying strong foundations for the future success of the Entrepreneurship Project. In this blog Izzy tells us about the adaptations they have made.
Although it has been difficult to adjust to the loss of the summer trip, the Entrepreneurship Project has been able to continue working to set up future Entrepreneurship teams for the greatest success possible. Our summer work will now comprise two streams: preparatory work for the project we were planning to implement this summer to be in the best place possible for handover to next year’s team, and a new partnership which we hope will have some positive impact upon the COVID-19 situation in Tanzania without openly stating disagreement with the official government line.
Our original pilot project, Tanzania CAN (Consult, Act, Network), was designed to match business students from both Dar Es Salaam and Cambridge with small enterprises (1-3 employees) in Dar, to offer consultation and support on scaling up their businesses. After the consultation period, the entrepreneurs would graduate into a community of fellow local entrepreneurs who would meet in a roundtable format once a quarter to network and discuss barriers and opportunities for growth. Our preparatory work includes designing a baseline survey, implementing Monitoring and Evaluation frameworks, designing a recruitment campaign and training for volunteer entrepreneur consultants, and fundraising.
Our new partnership project is working with Mydia-TZ, to support and facilitate soap-making microfinance livelihood projects. We are hoping to bring together a three-way partnership with KITE, to run parallel soap-making projects. Mydia-TZ work in the North West of the country in the Kigoma region, so this entails scaling the project up to run in two locations. The project trains and funds young mothers (under 25), so fits with CDI Entrepreneurship’s long term aim of reducing youth unemployment through capacity-building, while pivoting towards supporting the local production of an essential good which has become increasingly necessary with the pandemic. Our role in the partnership is still emerging, but our main goal will likely be supporting fundraising, Monitoring and Evaluation, and budgeting as well as facilitating the Mydia-KITE relationship.
In this post, Education Project Director Nikita Jha tells us about the adaptations she and the Education Project volunteer team have made in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
The CDI Education Project for 2020 was originally centred around three projects, two new ideas and a third building on a project from 2019–KomputHER. However the project has now been pivoted to take a more feasible, relevant and sustainable approach by shifting operations online. In doing that, it’ll be centred on two areas.
First, it will maintain the focus on KomputHER but will be geared towards digitising the content in the form of an app. The aim will be to lay the logistical foundations for this project by ideating on implementation, developing the content, building partnerships and securing the funding that will ease operations for future teams.
The second project strand is an awareness building campaign to increase parental engagement in children’s education, proposed in light of prolonged school closures during the spread of COVID-19. The primary medium for this campaign will be radio, which has a wide and diverse audience in Tanzania. The target for this project strand will be to conduct preliminary research on the current level of parental engagement with children’s education, and use the research results to design the campaign content.
Nikita and her team of volunteers have continued to work remotely with diligent application throughout the summer, and have laid an excellent foundation for the incoming Education Project co-directors and volunteers.
On Saturday 15th February, CDI hosted Kasia Lanucha, an Intercultural Communication teacher and coach, to deliver a workshop to our volunteers for their second training session. A huge thank-you must go to Kasia for coming in to deliver this session, we are very appreciative for her time.
The session provided volunteers with a wonderful opportunity to discuss some of the best ways to ensure our work abroad is productive. We learnt how to collaborate effectively in multi-cultural and internationally diverse teams. A particular highlight was discussing the ways in which professional working cultures across the globe differ, and therefore how the means of interaction might alter — even the ways that we write emails might need adapting!
Next we covered the topic of stereotyping vs. generalizations – Kasia asked us to brainstorm some of the best ways to adapt to new working environments, with a focus on tackling stereotypes.
The session helped our volunteers to develop skills which will be vital for the work they’ll carry-out in Tanzania: self-awareness, open-mindedness and cultural humility. When CDI’s project work begins this summer, our volunteers will be able to hit the ground running! In an increasingly globalised world, learning how to collaborate and communicate across cultures is a crucial skill, a skill which businesses and organisations such as our own will need to master in order thrive internationally.
Determined to ‘save the world’ from a young age, I had been a passionate crusader for volunteering (especially the sexy, international type) and ‘doing good’… until a couple of real-life stints abroad opened my eyes to just how complicated and difficult the whole thing actually is. My critique of ‘voluntourism’ is nothing new and our very own Varsity has tackled the issue in recent weeks. I found myself deeply frustrated and dissatisfied over my time in Nepal this past summer as I saw the still-lingering earthquake damage all around me and thought to myself: is teaching the children English through the songs of The Beatles and playing a nerdy grammar version of Splat really the best things I could do for them?
This summer I finally had that epiphany that my peers ruthlessly gunning for those lucrative City jobs had perhaps grasped long before: money matters; money is not always evil; money can and often does do good. Just as I was belatedly realising that I could be of better use utilising my networks and communication skills to raise funds, CDI came to my attention in a fortuitous Facebook post on my newsfeed advertising for a Fundraising position! Small confession though: until relatively recently I had thought fundraising rather dull and uninteresting – it certainly seemed to pale in comparison to the heroic endeavours of those on the frontline, as it were, ‘changing lives’ and ‘helping people’. But what my experiences abroad have taught me is that this role is perhaps the heart of any charity, the engine of any organisation.
I like to think of my team (along with our lovely Finance Director, Sunil) as the Treasury of CDI. We may mysteriously hover in the background and not be directly involved in actual project matters, occasionally breaking our reticence to solemnly proclaim the importance of sticking to ‘the budget’, but without us there is no money and without money there is no good to be done, plain and simple. You do feel quite important! Having said that, it has undoubtedly been a baptism of fire. With choral singing having been my most ‘teamwork’-based activity thus far, I was suddenly thrust into a terrifying world of Slack and Google Drive. I have made mistakes and missed deadline and backtracked and panicked and wanted to quit at various points; I have felt hopelessly lost and confused and incompetent. But each time the wonderful committee rallies around to support and calm you down (usually over a sneaky pint or nice brunch at Queen’s) and you are reminded of how special CDI truly is.
Currently, my team and I are drafting letters to beg colleges for some money (you have to be quite persistent to wear down their usual we’re-so-poor-and-have-absolutely-nothing talk), researching grants and corporate firms we are hoping to target for sponsorship, and getting in touch with the finest nightclubs Cambridge has to offer (Lola’s or Cindies) to see if they’ll let us host a launch party there. After all, we only have until the summer to raise £50,000+…
An introduction to the process and importance of ME&L
Let’s face it. You see the words ‘measuring’ and ‘evaluating’ and instantly feel like the fun police have rocked up to your project party. Horror flashbacks from first year stats class start to brew at the back of your mind and you are ready to scroll past this blog post.
BUT: buckle up, friends— I promise you, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is really not that bad. In 5 minutes when you have finished reading this post, you will know some jazzy technical words and handy tools for making decisions, designing projects, and communicating to donors and investors.
First up. Development Impact and M&E— what are they and why should you care? Many institutions or individuals are out in the world trying to make it a better place. Development Impact is the additional socio-economic/societal value that can be attributed to an organisation’s activities. M&E is a broad term for the tools that help you estimate whether you have generated a development impact, and indeed, made the world a better place.
M&E is critical to project design because it forces us to ask:
– Are we achieving what we intended to achieve?
– Are we contributing to our partners and stakeholders’ goals?
– If we didn’t exist would things be any different?
In this sense it is an essential part of strategy and performance measurement. Good strategy asks: “where do we want to be in 5 years, and what do I need to do each year to get there?” Meanwhile, a good M&E framework tells us if we are on the right track—or if we need to pivot our ideas and activities.
The ‘Theory of Change’ underpins an institution’s M&E framework. It defines what ‘development’ looks like in terms of its inputs and outputs, as well as the outcomes and impacts expected from these. To this end, it will establish a conceptual link between the ‘what’, ‘why’, and ‘how’ of our operations. Integrated within the M&E framework, it will:
Establish what should be measured and reported;
Communicate to stakeholders (and donors) the rationale for chosen activities and how these activities lead to development outcomes;
Prevent unrealistic expectations of impact directly attributable to an organisation.
Theory of Change
When an institution’s theory of change is understood internally it creates alignment towards results; when it is communicated externally it demonstrates the value and purpose of our projects.
The next step: once an institution has determined its theory of change for any given project this can be translated into a logical framework (a logframe). This is used to describe what an intervention is expected to achieve at progressive levels. It summarizes not only what should be measured (by defining key indicators), but how, and by whom and how often – sometimes referred to as a Results Framework.
A logframe helps guide project workers to collect meaningful data over the course of a project, which will contribute to an evaluation of the project’s effectiveness. This in turn helps key stakeholders make decisions; it allows them to gauge where input resources are yielding more significant outcomes and long-run impacts. It also allows institutions to adopt a continuous learning mentality – refining ideas to design projects which yield a positive impact.
So… monitoring and evaluating: these words may have low sex appeal, but the concepts behind them are the keys to the success of any organisation. Wield them correctly, and you’ll unlock buckets of potential impact and progress.
Friday evening saw CDI hosting their first event of the year, an introduction to the Cambridge Development Initiative, followed by a panel discussion on the topic of ‘leveraging the small for big impact’, with speakers Taskeen Adam and Nafisa Waziri.
Following an engaging introduction to CDI by our new Director, Oliver (self-named after Oliver Cromwell, we were told!), our project directors presented an outline of the goals and progress of each of our four community development projects: education, WaSH, health, and entrepreneurship. Our deputy director, Tads, then kicked off the panel discussion by introducing and welcoming our panel speakers.
Taskeen Adam is a Cambridge-Africa Scholar, pursuing a PhD. She pioneered Solar Powered Learning in South Africa and Mobile Education for Smart Technologies in India, and was chosen as one of M&G top 200 Young South Africans in 2014. Nafisa Waziri is a member of the Development Studies department in Cambridge. Nafisa has been actively engaged in international development projects for the past seven years, including participating in research for WHO Water Safety Plans, and project managing for Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA).
Unfortunately two of our arranged speakers, Mike Noyes and Tom Nott, had to drop out due to unforeseen circumstances. This, however, did nothing to affect the quality of the panel discussion which covered topics from the greatest obstacles faced by sustainable development organisations in today’s global world, to the merit of the winners of the Nobel Prize in Economics for 2019, Banerjee, Duflo and Kremer.
Tads did a great job at leading the discussion and involving questions from the audience. A pertinent question was raised by an audience member, who sought advice from the panel on how to navigate ‘white saviourism’ while pursuing a career in sustainable development. Nafisa advised that continual self-reflection and analysis is vital.
As highlighted by Oliver in his introduction, it’s important not just for individuals but for organisations like ours to pause occasionally and engage collectively in these conversations in order for us to reflect, grow, and maximise our efficiency. We’ll look to take the ideas we discussed yesterday and integrate them into our work over the upcoming academic year.
It was great to see so many new faces at the event! We’d love to see you again, so please do get in touch to be added to our mailing list, or like our page on Facebook.
Eight weeks ago, we started off as two organisations working on four projects and over the course of thirty-five working days, we end as a team – one team united in the shared commitment to deliver an equitable, prosperous, and sustainable future for all. There certainly have been challenges – it has at times been difficult, demanding, and draining. And while it might not have always seemed or felt this way, as we finish and reflect, it has without a doubt been an immensely rewarding summer.
Over our thirty-five project days:
Our Entrepreneurship Project ran nine seminars and one network event which had nearly fifty participants
Our Health Project ran three workshops in two schools on four different topics which all aimed to increase awareness of sexual and reproductive health amongst school girls
Our Education Project ran eight KompyutHer sessions which helped fourteen young women enhance their businesses and
Our WaSH Project connected twenty-one latrines to our simplified sewerage networks to provide access to safe sanitation for more than two hundred people in the informal settlement of Vingunguti.
And this is only part of what we’ve been able to accomplish this summer.
On behalf of CDI’s Executive Committee, I thank you all for doing a part – your part. Thank you to our volunteers, our Trustees, our partners, our donors, and our supporters – thank you for believing in us and in our work as we endeavour to re-imagine the world. I am proud of how far we have come and all that we have been able to do. But this doesn’t mean that we are done and that there isn’t more left to do. Your commitment begins again here and now. This is our charge to you all: (Continue to) Do your part as the hope of tomorrow and as the promise of today.
By Peter Lee FRAI, FRGS, FCPS – Deputy Director 2018/19
Peter is an MPhil candidate in Social Anthropologyat Corpus Christi College.
This summer, myself and 2 KITE Dar es Salaam (KITE DSM) members of the WaSH Project have been exploring new avenues of work, in light of the project’s aims to handover its successful simplified sewerage project. The team, known internally as the Innovation Team, has been making use of our Tanzanian contacts to do some consultancy work for Blue Tap, a Cambridge-based start-up.
Blue Tap is a technology company that creates products to improve access to high quality drinking water in low resource settings. They came to CDI and KITE DSM’s WaSH Project this summer looking for a partner in the running of a feasibility study in Dar es Salaam. Through the promotion and sale of 50 water filters licensed for use in Tanzania, valuable lessons can be learnt regarding microfinancing and making filters affordable, distribution channels, how to incentivise vendors, the best way to advertise and promote filters, and how to convince community members that clean drinking water should be a priority. These lessons will be invaluable when Blue Tap comes to launch its novel water treatment product in the near future: a 3D printed chlorine injector.
Due to the extensive work that the CDI and KITE DSM WaSH Project has carried out in the informal settlement of Vingunguti through its simplified sewerage project, our organisations have developed good working relationships with the chairperson of the district and local community members. Consequently, getting permission to conduct surveys with the residents, and run and publicise workshops, is relatively straightforward. Our Tanzanian KITE DSM counterparts can help give local knowledge on the best districts to target certain market segments, give guidance to ensure we respect cultural etiquette and local laws, and speak Swahili to the locals and Tanzanian organisations. These links and contacts made us especially appealing as a partner for Blue Tap. The project also dovetails with our own interest in pursuing other clean water initiatives in the future. Although any future projects are still in the ideation stage, gaining a deeper understanding of the current situation will enable us to come up with the most effective solutions to tackle the challenges facing community members at present.
So, what exactly have we been doing this summer? The first thing we did was conduct a questionnaire to community members living in Vingunguti. This helped us to better understand their current drinking water situation, money saving habits, and attitudes towards investing in water filtration technology. We realised that due to CDI’s previous involvement in Vingunguti (running health workshops and implementing the simplified sewerage system), this area might not be entirely representative of other informal settlements in Dar es Salaam. To make sure our results would be applicable to a wider target group, we’ve put in applications to conduct questionnaires in other districts too, although we are still waiting to find out if permissions have been granted.
The second main task was researching microfinancing organisations in Tanzania. This is something that CDI has always been mindful of as it is very relevant to the work we do with lower income individuals. Through microfinancing loans, lower income individuals can invest in products and projects to improve their WaSH standards which they would otherwise have been unable to afford. Contact was made with several microfinancing banks, and the meetings we’ve had have shown great potential, with Blue Tap keen to collaborate with them.
Research was also done into similar water filtration companies operating in Tanzania and elsewhere in East Africa to try and predict the challenges Blue Tap might face during its feasibility study, and when rolling out larger-scale distribution of its chlorine injectors. Through the exchange of emails and phone meetings, we were able to learn about the strategies these organisations had used to make their filter distributions financially sustainable, methods of engaging the community to purchase water filters, and how to ensure continued proper use of the technology. This helped inform our decisions when planning a workshop to raise awareness on the importance of drinking water, that was held this Saturday at a venue in Vingunguti. We had a doctor in preventative medicine come in to explain the dangers of unclean water to give the workshop more credibility, we had a live water filter demonstration to show how crystal clear water can be produced from ‘muddy sludge’, and we collaborated with a microfinance organisation who came in to speak about the loans available if people want to invest in a water filter or other WaSH projects. We had 75 people attending the workshop and one lady that came forward to say she wanted to become a vendor of the water filters in her area. Fingers crossed, we’ll be seeing some sales in the next few weeks, with added publicity from our instagram campaign, posters and whatsapp presence! We’ve also been contacting hardware shops and retailers in advance to see if they’d be interested in stocking our filters if sales take off and scaling up proves a viable option in the future.
The Blue Tap feasibility study has been a really exciting project to be a part of, and I’m learning lots about business development and marketing which will be extremely useful when I begin work as a technical consultant in October. My handover report for CDI will ensure the information I’ve gained won’t be lost, and CDI can continue to build on the knowledge and contacts made this summer in future projects. Perhaps this will be the start of a new CDI specialism: consulting for external companies!
By Natasha Wilson, WaSH Project Volunteer 2018/19 Natasha is fourth-year studying Engineering at Emmanuel College.