What the internet can’t teach you – realities of working on the ground, and the importance of learning from Tanzanian counterparts

In purely numerical terms, I reckon I’m a prime contender for qualifying as CDI’s Most Keen Volunteer 2019. As we come back to start work on the CDI and KITE projects after our mid-trip break, I’ve already been in Tanzania for over a month, and in East Africa for a good six weeks. Owing to the logistics of timing a backpacking holiday in neighbouring Kenya (as well as a touch of incompetence on my part about dates!), I arrived the day before the CDI committee, with around ten days to spare before the other volunteers landed. As the Director, Deputy Director Project Directors and Treasurer busied themselves with the necessary meetings and logistical arrangements before everything got properly underway, I found myself with quite a bit of time on my hands. This was despite my best efforts – even after pootling around the local markets, killing some time on one of the most beautiful beaches I’ve ever seen, and getting to grips with some rudimentary Swahili grammar, I was still at something of a loose end! So I decided to get stuck in to a bit of preparatory reading. The focus of the Health Project this year is on raising awareness of sexual and reproductive health among youth in Dar es Salaam, which, as the resources I found on the internet quickly made clear, is an area in which there is significant scope for awareness to be raised, myths dispelled, and services made more readily available. I learnt about how sexual and reproductive health fits into a positive, holistic understanding of health, as a universal human right, and about the specific barriers to the realisation of this right in the Tanzanian context.

And so it was that, at the first meeting of the Health Team, I came armed with a mental list of what I took to be our most urgent priorities, the most efficacious ways of tackling the issues at hand. But of course, it didn’t take long to realise that this theoretical, rights-based approach to interventions couldn’t simply be copy-and-pasted onto the context we were dealing with. From day one, my Tanzanian counterparts helped me to realise that we had to work within the realities of the Tanzanian situation, and that meant adapting some of the goals and tactics I had identified. When I suggested partnering with companies and stakeholders who would be willing to supply us with contraceptives to hand out to students, my colleagues responded with a definite no. ‘We can’t just hand out condoms in schools!’ they told me. ‘The parents would be horrified, and we’d never be invited back!’ Certainly, this has sometimes proved frustrating: how can we make the most necessary, impactful changes if we’re barred from delivering practical advice and resources in certain areas? Isn’t it precisely these taboos, this reticence towards discussion, that is what we’re trying to change? But as time goes on, the more I realise the importance of working within the framework in which we find ourselves, of taking small steps to tackle issues that are within our reach, without jumping the gun, jeopardising our work by provoking negative responses from the community. To do otherwise, to focus on the bigger picture and try to completely redraft the society we’re working in, would be utterly counterproductive. And let’s not forget, when we’re talking about sexual health, we’re dealing with areas that are pricklier than most, more likely to provoke strong feelings and sensibilities, and to challenge deep-seated beliefs. We, as volunteers from Cambridge and hence outsiders, are all relying on our Tanzanian colleagues to help us to negotiate these views with sensitivity, to navigate the realities of the cultural and social situation and deliver an impact that is both meaningful and acceptable.

Knowledge of the local context has also repeatedly been invaluable in other ways. When it comes to logistical matters, for instance, to the day-to-day practicalities of operating the project, some understanding about how things function in the country is indispensable. I personally, when faced with the conundrum of how actually to set up a workshop in schools, would have drawn a blank, scratched my head and perhaps fired off a few tentative emails, which would almost certainly have been ignored. But fortunately, the KITE volunteers in my team were much more clued up; they wasted little time in making sure we had the documents we needed, then jumping on a bus and heading off to ask the appropriate schools in person. The headteachers were more than happy to speak to us, and mostly proved very co-operative, readily inviting us to work with their students. This knowledge of how to open the necessary doors has served us well on many occasions: for example, I was amazed when I learned that our team’s publicity manager had somehow secured a spot to talk about the project live on morning television, and had connected more than hundred local youths in a WhatsApp group to start discussing the issues we’re focusing on. It’s a kind of know-how that would take me years to acquire, but that is vital in moving forward the pace of our project’s activities.

All in all, my weeks volunteering with CDI thus far have been a fascinating, and at times intense, learning process. Much of this has been about learning to view the theoretical principles and guidelines in new ways, through eyes more attuned to the intricacies and sensitivities of cultural context. As I move on to a postgraduate course in Development Studies, I hope to deepen my theoretical, academic knowledge of key issues in the field – but this more practical, pragmatic understanding of how development work unfolds is one that I will not leave behind. I now realise the value of reconciling both approaches, combining cognizance of certain contextual realities with a broader, more long-term view of the universal goals towards which we are working. And for that I will remain indebted to these experiences working in Tanzania, and to all the colleagues and friends with whom I have shared them.

By Kitty Chevallier, Health Project Volunteer 2018/19
Kitty is a fourth-year student studying Asian and Middle Eastern Studies (AMES) at Emmanuel College.

Realities of being a student-led organisation: challenges and rewards

As fans of this blog (and CDI) may know, CDI is a student-run organisation based at the University of Cambridge. This means that students lead, ideate, implement, and evaluate the projects – all in collaboration with (you guessed it) more students from universities based in Dar es Salaam.

Being a student run organisation comes with its challenges and rewards:

Being based in Cambridge

CDI volunteers are Cambridge-based for most of the academic year leading up to the 2-month project summer, because of academic commitments (and mysterious University residence requirements).

This sometimes limits our understanding of how we can align project activities to the local context before the two month summer.

As an example we can refer to the publicity for the Into Business (ITB) Seminar Series. In Summer 2018, the Entrepreneurship Project piloted the ITB Seminar Series which consisted of stand-alone seminars during which high-profile Tanzania-based businesspeople teach business skills from writing a CV to business registration law.

To advertise each seminar, the team initially relied heavily on paid Facebook and Instagram adverts – few attendees found out about the seminars through these. Instead, most found out through WhatsApp. This may be down to how WhatsApp dominates Tanzanian communication. Had the Entrepreneurship team more time in Tanzania to pilot social media publicity strategies, they could have realised this sooner and streamlined publicity earlier.

Experiencing genuine cross-cultural collaboration with KITE Dar es Salaam

CDI’s volunteers collaborate very closely with KITE Dar es Salaam (KITE DSM) – another student-run charity consisting of university students at university across Dar es Salaam. Together, both CDI and KITE DSM ideate and implement the summer projects.

The level of cross-cultural collaboration between UK and Tanzania based volunteers is very unique and rewarding. Yes, your standard 3-month corporate internship will probably see you working with people from different cultures and countries. However, we are a student-run organisation. When something goes wrong during the summer, we can’t turn to our ‘line manager’ to fix the problem – we are our own managers. When we visit high-level stakeholders such as government ministries, we do it together, without the safety net of a ‘supervisor’ watching us in the corner. What’s more, we are working on high-stakes issues: during the summer we aren’t simply doing ‘presentations’ or ‘secondary research’ or ‘consulting’ from a desk like you may find even in the most competitive internships – we work with real people every day and their welfare is at stake. This level of responsibility creates a genuinely collaborative working relationship between us, as the pressures of the situation make us genuinely rely on each other to make things work. What’s more, this often creates genuine friendships between UK- and Tanzania-based students.

The Education Project is based on a foundation of collaboration between CDI and KITE DSM volunteers, as well as with local partners. Since its inception, the project’s direction and strategy have always been defined as a team – whether a school visit or survey is being conducted, you can be sure to find both UK and Tanzanian volunteers standing side by side to achieve the goal of radically improving the impact of education for young children across Dar es Salaam.

Annual changes in Executive Committee and volunteers

Every year, almost all of CDI’s volunteers change as we recruit a new Executive Committee (August-September) and new volunteers (December-January). This is because, inevitably, us students will go on to do other placements or graduate from university.

Doing our best to make sure that the next volunteers know the history of their projects (a process we call ‘handover’) is therefore crucial, and is taken very seriously as many handover documents meticulously detail previous decisions, meetings, recommendations for the next year etc. (my handover document was a total of two months in the making!)

Ensuring a seamless handover can be difficult because of its time-consuming nature, especially during the busy end-of-summer period when we are interviewing Executive Committee candidates, ramping up the Monitoring, Learning and Evaluation (MEL) of projects, and doing other necessary preparations to make sure our projects can continue running after the summer.

However, we always find a way to make it work, through the help of our peers and sometimes a coffee (or two, or three…) from our favourite cafe haunts in Dar es Salaam.

A steady supply of innovative thinkers

Student turnover, however, brings a major advantage to CDI as an organisation: annually, we recruit new cohorts of volunteers with fresh perspectives. Beyond bringing in unique project ideas, it allows us, as an organisation, to retain objectivity and clear judgement about how projects can be improved and when they should be decommissioned.

For example, in 2015 the WaSH team piloted the Flexigester, a flexible biodigester. The idea behind this was to produce biogas from waste produced by the simplified sewerage system. This biogas would be stored and sold back to the community as cooking fuel, while the sludge output would be processed into biofertiliser that could then be returned to the land. This was the world’s first integrated simplified sewerage and biogas network; in December 2015 we confirmed that a small amount of combustible biogas was being produced by the Flexigester. As successful as it was at that time, the 2018 team was also aware not to be swept up in focusing too much on the novelty of the combined simplified sewerage-biodigester system without considering the real benefits it brought for the community, and, in light of such an assessment, the Flexigester and the Biogas Project itself were decommissioned in Summer 2018. 

The ability to take risks and learn from them

In being run by students who are guided by advice from experts and stakeholders and who have not yet been jaded by the world that exists around them, CDI as an organisation has the ability and the nerve to take risks. Through the monitoring and evaluation inherent in our organisation’s model, we have the ability to continually improve our project and shift our focus year on year to better impact the lives of the beneficiaries and communities with whom we work.

For example, in 2016 the Health Project implemented the Afya Yetu project, which aimed to improve the health of the Vingunguti community by providing access to health products such as sanitary pads, water-purification tablets, and fortified flour at subsidised prices. However, in 2017, we found that Afya Yetu did not make the health products significantly more affordable than those which could already be bought at local markets and government pharmacies. Some health products offered by Afya Yetu such as sanitary pads were already easily affordable or distributed for free by the local government. 

But that’s okay – now that the Health Project team knows this, it has begun to narrow its focus onto areas where it can make a significant impact, like non-communicable disease awareness: in 2018, following recommendations provided by volunteers on CDI’s Research Team, the Health Project launched a non-communicable disease TV and radio awareness campaign with Tabibu TV and Sibuka FM.

In 2019, the project decided instead to focus instead on female sexual and reproductive health, as the KITE DSM team felt that this was a better route to follow this year. Although the project has changed its aims many times, the Health Project is a good example of one of CDI’s strengths in being a student organisation – considering voices on the ground in Tanzania, shifting the focus to accommodate the findings, and implementing a project that will have the largest positive effects that we can achieve.

Limited time to train volunteers

Being very (very, very, very…) busy with academic commitments, CDI’s volunteers can commit only little time to volunteer training before the project summer. This restricts opportunities to learn new skills that are immediately crucial for project implementation from day 1.

Sometimes, volunteers can feel overwhelmed once they arrive in Tanzania, maybe even unprepared. However, many quickly find that what they learned in the volunteer training workshops is useful in equipping them with prior knowledge and skills that is useful to navigate them through their first few weeks in Tanzania.

Leveraging the University of Cambridge

CDI volunteers, being University of Cambridge students, have access to an impressive network of contacts within the University of Cambridge. We have been able to leverage these contacts for fundraising and consulting purposes.

For example, the founders of CDI worked with Cambridge Judge Business School to produce the Entrepreneurship project’s flagship initiative – the DAREnterprisers course. Also, Trinity College Chapel has also kindly allowed CDI to host its epic annual fundraising concert there!

The willingness of these other University bodies to collaborate with us in part stems from a belief in the power of students to drive forward positive changes in society. Indeed, in the words of the founders of CDI – ‘university students…can offer more than free labour – they can bring fresh solutions, kickstart new initiatives and become a reliable partner for governments and communities in the developing in the developing world’.

In conclusion, what can we learn from my long (and bracket-laden) ramblings? Yes, we face challenges as an organisation, and yes there are limits to what students can do. However, we have no shame in admitting this; we run on a culture of honesty. Nevertheless, the rewards are far greater than the challenges because as young, driven, and ambitious students we have a certain energy and determination to push through these challenges that (at least I believe) is unfortunately lost as time goes on.

In a world that seems to pessimistic nowadays, be it about climate change, politics,  whatever, perhaps it takes the starry-eyed optimism of students to see us through the darkest challenges society faces.

CDI is just one example of the power of students to do this.

By Anand Talwar, Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning (MEL) Officer 2018/19
Anand is a second-year student studying Human, Social and Political Sciences (HSPS) at St. Catherine’s College.

Find your belief

“What do you know about development, exactly?”

“What do you know about Tanzania or its people?”

“What do you know about the domain of Education / Entrepreneurship / Health / WaSH?”

“What do you know about managing projects?”

“Can you really run an organisation of 30 people?”

If there’s one feeling that characterised my CDI experience, it was disbelief. This came from all sides – development professionals aghast at our ignorance about development, business leaders doubtful about our experience and competence, academics disappointed by our nosediving grades and desertion of their discipline, friends confused by our disappearance from social events, and family anxious about our safety and our future career.

Worst of all, this feeling of disbelief came from within myself. What if they’re all right? What if I’m really driving into a car crash in slow motion, and destined for failure: in CDI, in my degree, in my early career – and therefore in life?

Coping strategies

First, it’s worth stating the obvious here – none of these issues can be resolved overnight. You can’t just ‘know’ about development, Tanzania, or project management tomorrow. These skills or pieces of knowledge typically take years to develop or acquire. So at the time we could only resort to coping strategies in response to criticisms like these, of which several come to mind.

The first: the stonewall. Ignore all of them, and trudge on. Yes, they have a point, but whatever. I’ve already been doing this for the past year, so I’m going to just keep doing it. Because that feels more comfortable. Kicking the can down the road, and hoping the can will roll into a bin by itself.

Clearly, not an effective strategy. But a surprisingly common one among all of us, dare I say, when faced with difficult problems. And certainly one we frequently employed ourselves.

Another strategy was to admit defeat and throw in the towel. I know I certainly wasn’t alone among past CDI leaders to have given serious thought to just quitting. It just seemed like such a beautifully easy way out – if I just stop, I will be free! There will once again be balance in the universe.

But some part of me wasn’t willing to go down so easily. I’d done so much already. Giving up now would erase all my previous hard work. Plus, I’d be letting down so many – all the volunteers I recruited to my team + promised a summer opportunity, our donors, our partners, stakeholders who generously supported us.

Mostly, I trod somewhere in the middle of all this. I knew these were legitimate criticisms, and we even tried to address some of them e.g. did reading, organised some training, found mentors. And then afterwards we would carry on business as usual (“right, that’s Project Management training done. Project Management skills: checked.“). But deep down I knew these were cosmetic fixes, so I’d continue to let the feeling of inadequacy gnaw away at my existence.

This is otherwise known as Imposter Syndrome. And it was exhausting.

Let your belief co-exist with criticisms

So what to do about this all? In the face of such difficult questions, it’s easy to forget that the absence of criticism isn’t a precondition for belief. It’s possible to both accept criticisms as legitimate and believe in yourself.

Enough of this self-help BS, I hear you say.

Here’s how I think about belief. In my experience, it can come from three sources (not an exhaustive list by any means):

1) Success stories / role models, especially those who were once in a similar position

“If he or she did it, and I’m just like them, then I can do it too.”

Seems to make perfect sense, right? It’s a powerful line of thinking – it’s why biographies can be so inspiring, and why exposure programmes for the underprivileged can be so impactful. Having successful role models, who once struggled just like us, can work wonders for our belief.

And in CDI, we can lean on a reservoir of ~200 alumni role models. They’re all just like you, and it’s worked out OK for them. Find a way to be on the phone with the team member in your position in the last few years!

2) Small wins

“I’ve already done this thing, which is just a smaller version of this bigger thing, so I can probably do this bigger thing too.”

Statistical sampling, if you will. Perhaps your project is divided into a series of weekly goals, and you find yourself worrying about whether you will actually make an impact by the end of 7 or 8 weeks. One way to proceed is to focus 100% of your energies on delivering on your goals for this week only. Or, scope it down even further and just focus on delivering on your goals for today. Check in on yourself at the end of day, and you’ll probably feel a good deal more confident about delivering for tomorrow.

Confession: I didn’t do this. At least not intentionally. When we ran the DAREnterprisers entrepreneurship course for the first time, I had minimal confidence about whether we’d really be able to help Tanzanian students launch viable businesses. It was only after we started running day after day of workshops, and found the participants genuinely engaged with our exercises and style, when my confidence started to grow.

If even that seems daunting right now, then aim for even smaller wins. Start your day by knocking out a few of the easier tasks that are on your plate – maybe a quick phone call to a stakeholder, a short message to a teammate, or coming up with an agenda for the next meeting – and feel your newly gained momentum pulse through your veins.

OK, this won’t solve all your problems. And there’s a fine line between chasing after small wins and procrastination. For me, though, there were many a day when I woke up feeling totally helpless, but after a few small wins, started to gain some confidence to take on the bigger challenges.

3) Moral belief

“This is the right thing to do for the world, so I’ll keep doing it no matter the result.”

Sounds like something Elon Musk would say, and that’s probably where I got it from. Probably a bit hard for many of us though, if we haven’t developed this level of conviction about anything yet.

But there’s a smaller version of this that could work. Go and talk to one of CDI’s supposed ‘beneficiaries’, and try to understand how (if) our work has impacted their lives. Of course, don’t go in with the assumption that it has – it may not have – but if it genuinely has made their lives better in any meaningful way, I promise that’ll make your day.

At this point it’s worth noting that none of these sources of belief should be categorised as blind faith (i.e. “I want this to be true, therefore I believe it’s true”) – that would be some real self-help BS. There’s an element of logic within them, and that’s why they can work.

Yeah, but about those criticisms…

I know none of this actually directly resolves the fundamental criticisms that are sometimes levelled at CDI. Some of these fundamental criticisms will never be resolved. But the thing is, you have chosen to commit at least 2 months of your life to this work, and you’re planning to see it through no matter what. What’s more useful – to employ flawed coping strategies like I often did (and probably be quite miserable most of the time), or find a source of belief that sustains you through this journey?

To me, it’s perfectly possible to accept those criticisms as legitimate, and yet believe that it’s still possible to make an impact. After all, that’s what others like you had done before, what you’ve already started doing, and the right thing to do for your target beneficiaries.

So, go forth and find your belief!

By Kelvin Wong, CDI Co-founder and Member of CDI’s Board of Trustees

A morning adventure: CDI’s simplified sewerage in Vingunguti

Last week I had my first adventure out of Ardhi University, where we sleep and work, and into the centre of Dar es Salaam, to visit the informal settlement of Vingunguti where the WaSH simplified sewerage project is implemented.

It was an eye-opening experience right from the moment I stepped onto the bus (daladala). The conductor seemed to permanently hang halfway out of the bus entrance as it drove around, yelling the bus route at passers-by in case they wanted to hop on, whilst inside the bus, we all stood like hot and sweaty sardines, swaying and bumping into each other and the few people that were lucky enough to be sat on sticky, padded plastic seats. Outside the window, the roads were lined with dusty paths full of makeshift stalls selling a variety of fruits, street food, furniture and bags of pulses. The traffic was also manic, and all cars seemed to be silver or white with sizeable dents all around their metal bodies, as though everyone was a car crash survivor. Every so often, the conductor managed to push his way through the crowded bodies on the bus, shaking coins in one of his hands to indicate that anyone that hadn’t paid now had to own up and deliver the 40p cost of the bus journey. Transport here is SO cheap!

Once off the bus, it was a short walk along yet another street lined with stalls (this time with loads of electronic stores blaring out recordings of men advertising their products at an extremely unpleasant volume from hidden speakers), and across an unexpected railway line with no barriers or warnings about its presence (I’m not sure if its still in use…). And then, finally, we reached Vingunguti. At its entrance, we were welcomed by the sight of two large lorries there to take away sewage from cesspits, and a massive pond that looked quite peaceful, but I soon learnt was a Waste Stabilisation Pond. For those who don’t know, this basically means I was staring at a massive body of sewage and water, waiting to be broken down by bacteria (anaerobic) after which it would be fed into two other ponds (facultative, and aerobic) as a cheap method to treat the waste releasing it into the environment.

Walking around the settlement itself was a real experience. Vingunguti is an informal settlement in which lower-income individuals have come to live, with housing often not complying with planning and building regulations. Without being led by the KITE DSM Tanzanian members of our team, I would have got completely lost as we picked our way through the rabbit warren of brown-walled housing blocks with corrugated iron roofs. Women sat outside their houses, washing clothes in buckets as we walked past, and young barefoot children danced around us with curiosity. The ground was uneven with unexpected hills, random walls, junction boxes, and the occasional ditch full of rubbish with makeshift bridges made from wooden planks.

Throughout the settlement, well-made latrine blocks stood out, painted white and blue with the CDI logo printed on. I was impressed with how many there were (and how they’d managed to find space for them in between the houses!). Their clear presence demonstrated how much of an impact they were having on the lives of the community, who could now have flushing toilets to take their waste hygienically and effectively to the waste stabilization pond for treatment. Previously, these people would have relied on pit latrines which commonly overflowed during the rainy season, and required emptying by hand as there was no way the waste collection lorry would have fit between the houses to carry away the waste! At regular intervals along the path, concrete junction boxes marked the connection point for pipes on the simplified sewerage system. Again, I was so impressed with how well-made everything was, and how much thought must’ve gone into ensuring the height of the pipes would allow a constant flow down to the waste stabilization pond. Exposed pipes had been carefully sealed off with concrete walls to prevent people damaging them. Everything was so well thought out!

All-focus

Latrine

Later that week, members of KITE DSM (Our Tanzanian partner organisation) went into Vingunguti again to conduct monitoring and evaluation questionnaires. This was important to ensure that the community was happy with the system we had implemented, and that it would be sustainable to continue to grow the sewerage network (currently 54 latrines have been built, serving 475 people, with another 20 latrines planned this year which would add 200 more people to the network). The response was overwhelmingly positive, with every interviewee saying they would recommend investing in a latrine. They felt the latrines had helped make the community cleaner and improved people’s health, with much fewer occurrences of diseases than had been prevalent before the system was implemented. Success!!

I would like to give a massive thank you to everyone that has donated to the WaSH project so far this year and made the construction of more latrines a possibility. Seeing first hand where the latrines are built and the community’s response to their installation, I can honestly say that every small donation is making a real difference to the lives of the people in Vingunguti. If you still want to donate, it’s never too late! Just head over to our JustGiving page 😉 £10 will help pay for supervision of one day of construction, £50 covers technicians wages for building one latrine, £100 pays for the delivery of all materials, and £235 covers the cost of materials to construct one latrine.

I’d also like to thank the iMechE for helping make it possible for me to finance the personal costs of flying out to Tanzania to work on this project. I would highly recommend all young and budding engineers to look into the huge variety of grants and scholarships they have available to support your studies and extra-curricular engineering-related activities. They’ve supported me so much throughout my degree and opened up opportunities that wouldn’t otherwise be possible. Check them out!

By Natasha Wilson, WaSH Project Volunteer 2018/19
Natasha is fourth-year studying Engineering at Emmanuel College.

Impressions from my first week in Tanzania: life outside of the project

I’m Emmanuel, a second-year chemical engineer from Homerton College, Cambridge, and I’m this year’s Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning (MEL) Officer for CDI’s WaSH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) project. There are three of us from Cambridge on this team: Micheala, our Project Director, Natasha, a member of the Innovation Team and I, and we’re working with eleven volunteers from KITE, the partner organization of CDI in Dar es Salaam. My KITE counterpart is Chagu, and most days we work together on assessing the impact of the project on our the people of Vingunguti, the rural area of Dar where our project is based.

On a typical day, we wake up around 8 and get breakfast at the canteen (we’re staying at the accommodation of Ardhi Uni) which is the best and also really cheap: they got mandazis, which are like doughnuts and chapatis, which are like crepes (and you can buy Nutella from the supermarket!!). Then we need to be at work around 9, work from one of the classrooms until 1, when we have a lunch break until 2. The lunch options are rice with beans (every day) or rice with meat or chips with eggs (called chips mayai!) or bananas boiled in tomato sauce. We then get back to work until 5, and then in the afternoons we are free to do whatever we want.

So far the highlight was watching The Lion King in the largest cinema screen in East Africa (just five minutes on foot from the campus!) and then going to this karaoke bar which was so much fun (on every Thursday).

Natasha, George and I on the daladala to Vingunguti

We also visited Vingunguti, the WaSH Project’s site, the other day. We got the daladala from the campus: daladalas are small buses which get way too crowded, the people get on and off while it is still crowded, the people get on and off while it is still moving, and can take ages to get through really small distances because the traffic here is crazy but is actually not as bad as it sounds. I thought it was rather fun, maybe not every day though. I found the conditions in Vingunguti rather shocking, with sewage often running on the streets; really made me appreciate all the things I often take for granted back home.

During our first weekend here, we decided to go clubbing. After buying some Konyagi – a really cheap type of Tanzanian alcohol which tastes a bit like gin – and some really strong red wine (16.5% !!) for predrinks, we went to Havoc, a club near Oyster Bay with very strong and cheap cocktails. On Sunday, some people went to church to listen to gospel and then we all met and got Indian food. We then walked across the beachfront to the fish market which was my favourite part of Dar – it feels very local and everyone seems very welcoming.

Ready for Havoc

Overall, my first week in Tanzania has been both challenging and rewarding, and while it certainly gets some time to adapt to the very different conditions here and to learn how to work efficiently with the Tanzanian volunteers, it is such a great opportunity to meet new people and develop new skills, and I’m very much looking forward to the rest of the summer.

By Emmanuel Angelidakis, WaSH Project Volunteer 2018/19
Emmanuel is second-year studying Chemical Engineering at Homerton College.

Tunes in Tanzania

By Max Goodall

Music is a massive part of life in any country and Tanzania is no different. Within the urban sprawl of Dar es Salaam, music seems to come at you from all angles; sounds are crammed together as closely as the many small buildings and street vendors themselves. Moreover, although this is generally characteristic of urban city life the world over, Dar also has its own distinct, identifiable identity and this is what you hear as you walk through its streets. The CDI 2018 volunteers are having a great time exploring the tunes of Tanzania and as a music student, I thought it’d be interesting to draw together what we’ve learned about music in Tanzania so far.

Whenever you read or hear about Tanzanian music, the genre you always hear about is Bongo Flava. The genre is undoubtedly dominant in the Tanzanian music scene and is only growing in popularity; artists such as Muzungu Kichaa (listen to ‘Wajanja’) and ALIKIBA (listen to ‘Mvuma Wa Radi’ and ‘Seduce Me’), already ubiquitous throughout Dar es Salaam, are steadily growing their international profile. The most successful exponent of Bongo Flava, however, is undoubtedly Diamond Platnumz. His recent album ‘A Boy From Tandale’ included massive American artists such as Rick Ross and Ne-Yo, the latter track (‘Marry You’) gaining 24 million views on YouTube. I don’t think there’s been a day when a haven’t heard his newest single ‘Jibebe’ since we got here (it’s quality). However, definitions of this hugely successful genre differ wildly and people have consistently failed to agree on what the title actually refers to. In the early-mid 00s Bongo Flava was interpreted both by Tanzanians and Westerners as including a variety of styles such as Zouk, hip-hop, R&B, Reggae, Takeu and Bongo Bangra. However, since the late-00s, the term has generally referred to a more specific body of pop music, not including particularly Tanzanian Rap which is now generally seen as entirely separate.[1] This distinction seems appropriate to much of the Bongo Flava we’ve heard while we’re here. The tunes which constantly flow out of shops as you walk by, as well as out of endless Bhajaji drivers’ radios, have an aural appearance of contemporary R&B and Latin-American influenced pop. However, as with Western music, particularly in the United States, the line of distinction between popular and hip-hop genres is incredibly blurred.

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Diamond Platnumz’ album cover, A Boy from Thandale

The apparent Western influence in Bongo Flava is a product of the influx of Western cultural images following the abandonment of socialism and complete self-reliance as Tanzania’s ideological model in 1991.[2] However, although Bongo Flava includes influence from Western styles and is successfully crossing over into the international mainstream, it remains peculiarly Tanzanian. The genre’s roots are particularly identifiable through its utilisation of highly syncopated (off-beat) repeating drum patterns, something common to much modern African music (although It should be noted that the notion of African music’s basis to a greater extent on rhythmic considerations compared to European music has been highly criticised, see for example Kofi Agawu’s article ‘The Invention of “African Rhythm”’[3]). These patterns push the music on, creating a deep sense of excitement and energy; a massive part of what makes the music enjoyable, particularly to dance to (as we found at the club ‘Next Door’ on the first weekend of the trip). Beyond their aesthetic qualities, however, elements such as this can be seen as part of a strategy of the localization of cosmopolitan international styles. The inclusion of elements signifying a sense of African identity within music in this way allows the artists to construct African cultural authenticity and pride, performing Tanzanian identity.

The process of localization in music is usually then utilized by artists to resist social marginalization. The term Bongo Flava literally means ‘flavour of the brains’ and originally referred to the cunning needed to live in a city like Dar es Salaam (which also used to be known by the term Bongo).[4] The genre was therefore innately connected to the modern metropolitan experience of being a young person in Dar es Salaam. Youth in Tanzania, just as elsewhere in the world are frequently stigmatized as associated with qualities such as laziness and vagrancy. In its original incarnation, the genre was used to refute these stereotypes of youth identity, as well as highlighting societal issues encountered by this marginalized group.

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American hip-hop group Migos advertise on the back of a bhajaji

However, this characteristic is one of the issues which has led to the current description of Tanzanian hip-hop and Bongo Flava as mutually exclusive. Many Tanzanian ‘pure’ hip-hop artists self-exclude themselves from the category Bongo Flava on the grounds that hip-hop is supposedly still committed to social critique, while Bongo Flava represents a commercialized version of the original style.[5] This separate style is identifiable not only by its lyrical content but also by its aural similarities to traditional hip-hop, particularly 90s West-Coast tracks – check out, for example, one of the fathers of Tanzanian hip-hop Professor Jay (listen to ‘Zali la Mentali ft. Juma Nature’). Interestingly, therefore, although both are clear examples of negotiations of postcolonial identity and the influence of globalization, from what I’ve heard so far, generally Tanzanian hip-hop fails to aurally localize itself in Tanzania, and Dar specifically, to the same extent as Bongo Flava. Despite this, however, arguably the hip-hop produced throughout Dar remains more concerned with the expression of youth identity within the city, and the refutation of the local stereotypes applied to it than the expression of a broader national identity. Moreover, through their lyrical agility and generic choice of hip-hop, a genre steeped in narratives of Pan-Africanism and urban struggle, Tanzania’s hip-hop artists successfully construct themselves as cultural producers embodying both urban authenticity and sophistication. What should be noted also, is that both Bongo Flava and Tanzania’s hip-hop are absolutely sick.

Luckily so far on the trip, we’ve had plenty of opportunities to hear some quality music. At clubs such as ‘Next Door’ we were delivered a massive variety of tunes, from American R&B to tracks from all over Africa (such as Angola’s Yuri Da Cunha – check out ‘Atchu Tchutcha’). The volunteers have been doing some amazing singing in the newly formed CDI and Kite DSM choir, and some slightly less amazing singing at karaoke nights. Likely due to the advent of the internet and general trends of globalization, there is a massive amount of Western music prevalent throughout Dar, particularly Ed Sheeran (in our first week we were subjected to six consecutive versions of ‘Thinking Out Loud’ at Karaoke). However, the city retains its distinct cultural identity and has some great Tanzanian tunes to show for it.

[1] Sanga, Imani. ‘Muzungu Kichaa and the Figuring of Identity in “Bongo Fleva” Music in Tanzania’ International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, Vol. 42, No. 1. (2011). pp. 190.

[2] Suriano, Maria. ‘Hip-Hop and Bongo Flavour Music Contemporary Tanzania: Youths’ Experiences, Agency, Aspirations and Contradictions’ Africa Development, Vol. 36, No. 3/4. (2011). pp. 115-6.

[3] Agawu, Kofi. ‘The Invention of “African Rhythm”’ Journal of the American Musicological Society Vol. 48, No. 3. (1995). pp. 380-395.

[4] Stroken, Koen. ‘Immunizing Strategies: Hip-Hop and Critique in Tanzania’ Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, Vol. 75, No. 4. (2005). pp. 488.

[5] Suriano. (2011). pp. 115.

A Brief Introduction to the WaSH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) Project – Overview

The problem

Over 80% of residents of Dar es Salaam live in low-income, high-density settlements without adequate sanitation. [1] Existing waste disposal methods are prohibitively expensive for nearly all residents, resulting in raw sewage spillage on the streets and bringing a range of severe implications affecting the health, environment and dignity of residents.

The vision

CDI and Kite Dar es Salaam’s (Kite DSM) WaSH project aims to find a suitable way to bring the established sanitation technology of simplified sewerage to the informal settlements of Dar es Salaam. These solutions are wholly community-based, as will be highlighted in this blog series.

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Our model in short

Since 2014, the WaSH project has facilitated the construction of four simplified sewerage routes in Vingunguti, Dar es Salaam.  Simplified sewerage is an established technology which is widely used in Latin America and Pakistan. It is better suited to the layout of unplanned settlements than conventional sewerage, as the flexible layout can be constructed around irregularly distributed buildings, and there is no requirement for large trunk sewers. Simplified sewerage is also considerably more affordable than conventional sewerage, due to cost-saving measures such as:

  • The use of junction boxes or inspection chambers in place of the larger and more expensive manholes of conventional sewerage.

  • Shallower pipe gradients and depths, resulting in reduced excavation volumes.

  • More straightforward construction, which can be carried out by technicians with less extensive training and using less expensive machinery.

  • System components which are easier to replace.

Guided by the technical expertise of student engineers from the University of Cambridge and across Dar es Salaam, community members drive the construction of these simplified sewerage networks. Training is then conducted by the WaSH project team and our partners, assisting community members to establish Sanitation Users Associations (SUAs). Each network route has its own SUA – a committee with one representative from each household that deals with problems which arise on the network. The SUAs organise maintenance of the networks once construction has been completed, giving the community full ownership of their sanitation systems. To ensure the financial scalability of this pilot, the latrines are funded by the members of the households which they will serve. This cost is initially covered by CDI and Kite DSM and then repaid by a flexible deferred payment scheme, which is also facilitated by the SUAs.

Our team

The 2018 WaSH team is divided into four sub-teams: network construction, community engagement, biogas and monitoring and evaluation (M&E). The role of each of these sub-teams is introduced below, and their work will be explored in later blogs.

Network Construction

The network construction team focuses on the physical installation of the simplified sewerage system. Their role includes signing contracts with the residents who wish to be connected, estimating the cost and technical complexity of those connections and applying for permissions and funding from the Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Authority (DAWASA). Furthermore, they are involved with surveying the area to plan the route of the new network, calculating trench depths and pipe gradients and, finally, supervising local technicians during the construction process itself.

See our Brief Intro To Simplified Sewerage (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8oZMa9WBi_Y) for more information about the process.

In response to significant community demand, the 2018 network construction team are adding new latrines to the preexisting simplified sewerage routes rather than building a seperate new route this summer. This connects those residents who initially declined the offer to join the network in their area but have changed their minds since it was built.

Community Engagement

For the WaSH project to work effectively, the community needs to have a sense of ownership over the project and complete ownership over their own latrines and the infrastructure connecting them to centralised sewage treatment facilities. Affordable community ownership over the latrines is achieved through the flexible deferred payment options which the WaSH project offers residents so that they can pay back the costs of the materials and labour required in construction over the course of several years. Workshops are also utilised to educate community members on good latrine maintenance practices, alongside various sanitation issues.

Community engagement means making sure that people living in Vingunguti have the knowledge and agency to improve the sanitation and health of their community in the long term. CDI and Kite DSM plan to facilitate the construction of more simplified sewerage networks in Vingunguti in the future and are working with SUAs this summer to continue improving our community engagement and education model.

Biogas

Our main focus is on the biodigester, a tank which biologically digests organic material from the simplified sewerage network to produce biogas. This summer, the biogas team will be decommissioning the current biodigester (known as the Flexigester) and using lessons learned from this, as identified by internal monitoring and evaluation, to develop a thorough plan for the installation of a new digester. This plan will detail the business model, justifying its financial and social feasibility, and will be developed through community research and liaising with technical experts in the field.

Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)

The M&E team is responsible for evaluating the whole process of the system and assessing whether it is running in the way that it was designed. They identify any possible problems within the system after it has been implemented, and assess whether deviations from the design indicate a need for the system to be adapted to better suit the community’s needs or whether an entirely new approach needs to be adopted.

The M&E team’s work consists of four major objectives:

  1. Continue to monitor the existing sewerage networks in Vingunguti to see whether or not any issues have arisen since last summer.
  2. Develop the M&E framework to thoroughly assess the planned installation of a new biodigester.
  3. Gather relevant information from residents who are to be connected to the sewerage network this summer to allow for a comparison to be made between their general livelihood before and after being connected to the simplified sewerage system.
  4. Work in collaboration with other sub-teams (especially community engagement) to make recommendations for any changes to the community model which should be implemented in the future, when large-scale expansion is taking place.

 

How do we plan to expand our model?

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A strategic priority for the WaSH project is to establish an  “alumni team” of university graduates to continue working on the expansion of the project throughout the whole year, rather than only during the two months that CDI and Kite DSM volunteers are working full time. This alumni team is intended to employ up to four graduates of the network construction team and one graduate from the community engagement team, pending negotiations and a formalised agreement with DAWASA (Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Authority).

The long-term goal of our biogas pilot is to fund further expansion of the simplified sewerage networks by selling biogas to members of the local community as a clean and sustainable energy source for cooking. The funds generated by these sales are intended to recuperate the original investment into the network, which will provide future funding for scaling the model. Forming a business model around biogas and simplified sewerage would incentivise the expansion of reliable sanitation access by local entrepreneurs, reducing the need for government funding and increasing the rate of expansion. Ultimately, this furthers the WaSH project’s overarching goal of providing a scalable sanitation solution that is accessible to all. It also tackles the issue of clean energy, as 90% of people across Tanzania and Sub-Saharan Africa currently use charcoal for cooking which drives deforestation and also has several negative health impacts from smoke.

 

[1] Jacqueline Thomas, Niklaus Holbro, Dale Young. A Review of Hygiene and Sanitation in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Msabi (2013).